Some materials are radioactive because the nucleus of each atom is unstable and can decay, or split up, by giving out nuclear radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles or gamma rays
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The emission of an alpha particle from the nucleus of an atom Alpha radiation occurs when an atom undergoes radioactive decay, giving off a particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons (essentially the nucleus of a helium-4 atom), .
The emission of a beta particle from the nucleus of an atom. Beta radiation takes the form of either an electron or a positron being emitted from an atom. Due to the smaller mass, it is able to travel further in air, up to a few meters, and can be stopped by a thick piece of plastic, or even a stack of paper. It can penetrate skin a few centimeters, posing somewhat of an external health risk.
The emission of an high-energy wave from the nucleus of an atom. Gamma radiation, unlike alpha or beta, does not consist of any particles, instead consisting of a photon of energy being emitted from an unstable nucleus.
Nuclear plant Nuclear power stations use the fission of uranium-235 to heat water.
As of today, nuclear energy is considered as one of the most environmentally friendly source of energy as it produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions during the production of electricity as compared to traditional sources like coal power plants.
Advantages of Nuclear Energy
1. Relatively Low Costs 2. Base Load Energy 3. Low Pollution 4. High Energy Density
Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy 1.High-known risks in an accident. 2. Radioactive Waste 3.Radioactive Waste Disposal 4 Environmental Impact:
（Nuclear plant の定義）
4.History of nuclear energy
To explain the history of nuclear energy we could distinguish three major stages:
Physical and chemical scientific studies of the elements.
The development of the nuclear bomb during World War II. Use of nuclear energy in the civil field.Scientific studies cover this whole period since the first Greek philosophers began to define atoms, until the development of the first nuclear bomb. In this process, different scientists discover the presence of electrons, neutrons and protons and properties that make one atom more radioactive than another.
During World War II USA, animated by Albert Einstein, impels the first nuclear bomb. This will be the first time nuclear technology is used outside the context of research.
Subsequently and seeing the danger of nuclear weapons the governments began to establish treaties to regulate their use and promote the use of nuclear energy in the civilian field.
It is at this moment when the first nuclear power plants for the generation of electricity begin to appear.
Electricity can be produced at thermos electric generating stations that burn fossil fuels are burnt every day in power station to heat up water to produce steam which further runs the turbine to generate electricity.